(An experience report from Yorie Nakayama)
If you are developing with python on Django, or on any frameworks that employ the MVC (Model-View-Controller) paradigm, you might come across whether there is a way to easily visualize all the models and their dependency relationships in your application as a diagram. Models are central to most applications using MVC, and being able to glance at the structure of models and their relationships to each other greatly helps any developer beginning to hack on the codebase.
When I worked with Reviewboard, a Django-based web app for doing code reviews, for my UCOSP, one of the first things I did was to generate a UML diagram of the models in the project using an extension package for Django called django-extensions. The diagram would let the students, who are new to the project, to see the overall picture of the models, and also let the mentors easily explain how some models are related to each other.
This post will provide a step-by-step instruction on generating a UML diagram of a Django application using django-extensions. Similar tools also exist for other MVC frameworks, such as railroady gem for Ruby on Rails, or phuml for PHP (not limited to CodeIgniter).
1. Install Dependencies.
For python, you need to install either pydot or pygraphviz as a python interface of the graph visualization library called graphviz. Either will be fine as far as django-extensions is concerned. I went with pydot because I had a trouble installing pygraphviz. If you choose to go with pygraphviz, you can ignore this step and resume from step 2 after installing pygraphviz.
pip install pyparsing==1.5.7 pip install graphviz pip install pydot
The version is specified on pyparsing installation because pydot is not compatible with newer (>=2.x.x) versions of pyparsing. I recommend that graphviz is installed before pydot to avoid an issue where pydot is not able to find graphviz executable. A similar installation issue may also occur with pygraphviz.
2. Install django-extensions.
Django-extensions provides various tools that could help development of Django applications such as enhanced shell, or UML diagram generation.
pip install django-extensions
3. Enable django-extensions in your project.
Under your Django project directory, open the file setting.py with a text editor. Within the settings, you should find a python list called INSTALLED_APPS.
Append ‘django_extensions’ to the list and save. Then you can use the functionalities that django-extensions provides.
4. Generate the UML diagram.
On a command shell, go to the Django project directory, and execute the following command to generate your diagram of all models in the project.
python manage.py graph\_models -a -o myapp\_models.png
The -a flag specifies to include all apps listed in INSTALLED_APPS for diagram generation. The output path is relative to the project root directory.
If you decide that your project does not need django-extensions, you can simply remove ‘django_extensions’ from INSTALLED_APPS in settings.py.
With a UML diagram for your models, you can easily see the overall picture of the data organization in your application. Hopefully this diagram could help a new member on a Django project to find where to start with the development.
— Yorie Nakayama